University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
In 1963, Lieb introduced an effective theory to approximate the ground state energy of a system of Bosons interacting with each other via a repulsive pair potential, in the thermodynamic limit. Lieb showed that in one dimension, this effective theory predicts a ground state energy that differs at most by 20% from its exact value, for any density. The main idea is that instead of considering marginals of the square of the wave function, as in Hartree theory, we consider marginals of the wave function itself, which is positive in the ground state. The effective theory Lieb obtained is a non-linear integro-differential equation, whose non-linearity is an auto-convolution. In this talk, I will discuss some recent work about this effective equation. In particular, we proved the existence of a solution. We also proved that the ground state energy obtained from this simplified equation agrees exactly with that of the full N-body system at asymptotically low and at high densities. In fact, preliminary numerical work has shown that, for some potentials, the ground state energy can be computed in this way with an error of at most 5% over the entire range of densities. This is joint work with E. Carlen and E.H. Lieb.
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